Welcome to the Binary Ninja User Manual. You'll notice two menus here. On the right is the table of contents for this main page of the user manual. On the left are links to larger topics that have their own pages, including:
Binary Ninja stores information in two primary locations. The first is the binary path (wherever Binary Ninja is installed) and the second is the user folder for user-installed content.
Binaries are installed in the following locations by default:
- Linux: Wherever you extract it! (No standard location)
- Windows (global install):
- Windows (user install):
If you want a silent install on windows, because we use the NSIS installer, simply use:
Do not put any user content in the install-path of Binary Ninja. The auto-update process of Binary Ninja WILL remove any files included in these locations.
While the default user folders are listed below, you can override these paths on all platforms using the
BN_USER_DIRECTORY environment variable.
~/Library/Application Support/Binary Ninja
The contents of the user folder includes:
lastrun: A text file containing the directory of the last BinaryNinja binary path -- very useful for plugins to resolve the install locations in non-default settings or on Linux
license.dat: License file
plugins/: Folder containing all manually installed user plugins
repositories/: Folder containing files and plugins managed by the Plugin Manager API
settings.json: User settings file (see settings)
The following files and folders may be created in the user folder but are not created by default without some additional action:
keybindings.json: Custom key bindings (see key bindings)
startup.py: Default python commands run once the UI is loaded in the context of the scripting console
signatures/: Any user-created signatures can be stored in platform-specific sub-folders in this location
pythonVER/: Any pip dependencies from plugin manager plugins are installed to the appropriate python version subfolder such as
symbols/: Used to store automatically downloaded PDBs
update/: Used to store update caches for pending updates
snippets/: Used to store snippets created using the official Snippet plugin
themes/: For user themes or user-modified versions of official themes
community-themes/: Can also be used to store themes, useful to clone the plugin theme collection directly into your user folder
Some settings such as window locations, saved checkboxes, recent file lists, disassembly settings, dialog histories are stored in QSettings.
If you ever have the need to flush these, you can find the install locations as described in the QT documentation.
When you first run Binary Ninja, it will prompt you for your license key. You should have received your license key via email after your purchase. If not, please contact support.
Once the license key is installed, you can change it, back it up, or otherwise inspect it simply by looking inside the base of the user folder for
Because Linux install locations can vary widely, we do not assume that Binary Ninja has been installed in any particular folder on Linux. Rather, you can simply run
binaryninja/scripts/linux-setup.sh after extracting the zip and various file associations, icons, and other settings will be set up. Run it with
-h to see the customization options.
You can load files in many ways:
- Drag-and-drop a file onto the Binary Ninja window (hold
[CMD/CTRL-SHIFT]while dropping to use the
Open with Optionsworkflow)
- Use the
Openbutton on the start screen (
- Use the
File/Open with Optionsmenu which allows you to customize the analysis options (
- Open a file from the Triage picker (
File/Open for Triage) which enables several minimal analysis options and shows a summary view first
- Click an item in the recent files list (hold
[CMD/CTRL-SHIFT]while clicking to use the
Open with Optionsworkflow)
- Press the number key associated with an item from the recent files list (0-9, where 0 represents file 10 on the recent list, optionally holding
[CMD/CTRL-SHIFT]to use the
Open with Optionsworkflow)
- Run Binary Ninja with an optional command-line parameter
- Open a file from a URL via the
- Open a file using the
binaryninja:URL handler. For security reasons, the URL handler requires you to confirm a warning before opening a file via the URL handler. URLs additionally support deep linking using the
exprquery parameter where expression value is a valid parsable expression such as those possible in the navigation dialog, and fully documented in the
parse_expressionAPI. Below a few examples are provided:
- URLs For referencing files on the local file system.
binaryninja:///bin/ls?expr=sub_2830- open the given file and navigate to the function:
binaryninja:///bin/ls?expr=.text- open the given file and navigate to the start address of the
binaryninja:///bin/ls?expr=.text+6b- open the given file and navigate to the hexadecimal offset
- URLs For referencing remote files either the URL should be prefixed with
binaryninja:and optionally suffixed with the
binaryninja:file://<remote_path>?expr=[.data + 400]- Download the remote file and navigate to the address at
- URLs For referencing files on the local file system.
There are five menu items that can be used to save some combination of a raw file or a file's analysis information. Analysis information is saved into files that end in
.bndb and have the same prefix as the original file. The default behavior for each of the "save" menu choices is described below:
"Save" - This menu is the only one bound to a hotkey by default and it is intended to be the "do what I probably want" option.
- If you have edited the contents of a file and have not yet confirmed the file name to save over, this will ask you to save the file contents and prompt for a file name (check the save dialog title text to confirm this).
- If you have edited the file contents and have previously specified the file name, this option will save those changes to that file without a prompt.
- If you have not edited the contents of the file but have added any analysis information (created functions, comments, changed names types, etc), you will be asked for the name of the
.bndbanalysis database if one does not already exist.
- If an existing analysis database is currently being opened or previously saved, the existing database will be saved without a prompt.
- Finally, if you have changed both file contents and analysis information, you'll be prompted as to which you wish to save.
"Save As" - Will prompt to save the analysis database or just the file contents.
- If you choose to save the analysis database, it behaves similarly to "Save" above, except for the cases that save without prompt. In those cases, you will always be prompted for a filename.
- If you choose to save the file contents only, you will be prompted for a filename to which to save the current contents of the binary view, including any modifications.
"Save All" - Used to save multiple tabs worth of analysis data only. Does not save file contents.
"Save Analysis Database" - Will prompt to select a database to save analysis information if none is currently selected and in use, and will save without a prompt if one has already been selected.
"Save Analysis Database With Options" - Allows for saving a
.bndbwithout additional undo information, or by cleaning up some internal snapshot information to decrease the file size.
The status bar provides current information about the open file as well as some interactive controls. Summary features are listed below:
- Update Notification - perform updates, download status, and restart notification
- Analysis progress - ongoing analysis progress of current active file
- Cursor offset or selection - interactive control that can be clicked to change its display format, or also to copy the current address or selection in a number of different formats (see the below screenshot)
- File Contents Lock - interactive control to prevent accidental changes to the underlying file
As soon as you open a file, Binary Ninja begins its auto-analysis which is fairly similar to decompiling the entire binary.
Even while Binary Ninja is analyzing a binary, the UI should be responsive. Not only that, but because the analysis prioritizes user-requested analysis, you can start navigating a binary immediately and wherever you are viewing will be prioritized for analysis. The current progress through a binary is shown in the status bar (more details are available via
bv.analysis_info in the Python console), but note that the total number of items left to analyze will go up as well as the binary is processed and more items are discovered that require analysis.
Analysis proceeds through several phases summarized below:
- Phase 1 - Initial Recursive Descent
- Phase 2 - Call Target Analysis (Part of Linear Sweep)
- Phase 3.x - Control Flow Graph Analysis (Part of Linear Sweep)
Errors or warnings during the load of the binary are also shown in the status bar, each with an appropriate icon. The most common warnings are from incomplete lifting and can be safely ignored. If the warnings include a message like
Data flow for function at 0x41414141 did not terminate, then please report the binary to the bug database.
If you wish to speed up analysis, you have several options. The first is to use the
File/Open for Triage menu which activates the Triage file picker. By default, Triage mode will enable a faster set of default analysis options that doesn't provide as much in-depth analysis but is significantly faster.
Navigating code in Binary Ninja is usually a case of just double-clicking where you want to go. Addresses, references, functions, jump edges etc, can all be double-clicked to navigate. Additionally, the
g hotkey can navigate to a specific address in the current view. Syntax for this field is very flexible. Full expressions can be entered including basic arithmetic, dereferencing, and name resolution (function names, data variable names, segment names, etc). Numerics default to hexadecimal but that can be controlled as well if you wish to use octal decimal or other base/radix. Full documentation on the syntax of this field can be found here.
Additionally, middle-clicking (scroll-wheel clicking) items that can be double-clicked can be used to navigate to that location in a new Split Pane. Shift + middle-click can also be used to navigate to that location in a new Tab. These bindings can be configured in the Settings (ui.middleClickNavigationAction, ui.middleClickShiftNavigationAction). These "Split and Navigate" actions can also be accessed in the Context (right-click) menu, and can be separately bound to keys in the Keybindings view.
Once you have a file open, the sidebar lets you quickly access the most common features and keeps them available while you work, including:
- function-specific local variables
- context-sensitive stack state
- a mini-graph of the current function
- cross-references to the current selection
Binary Ninja displays binaries in panes, whether shown as disassembly, hex, IL, or decompiler output. Tiling these panes allows for a wide variety of information to be displayed at the same time.
Each pane has display options at the top and can be split and synchronized with other panes (or groups of panes). The ☰ ("hamburger") menu in the top right of each pane allows for additional customization, including locking the pane to a single function.
The Feature Map is also displayed on the right of the main pane area. It provides a visual summary of the entire binary with different colors representing data variables, code, strings, functions/code, imports, externs, and libraries. It can be moved or hidden via the right-click menu. Note that these colors are theme-aware and will change if your theme does, but on the default dark-theme:
- Blue represents code in functions
- Orange represents imports and externs
- Green represents ASCII strings
- Red represents Unicode strings
- Grey represents data variables
- Black is the base color when nothing else exists there
Switching views happens multiple ways. In some instances, it is automatic (clicking a data reference from graph view will navigate to linear view as data is not shown in the graph view), and there are multiple ways to manually change views as well. While navigating, you can use the view hotkeys (see below) to switch to a specific view at the same location as the current selection. Alternatively, the view menu in the header at the top of each pane can be used to change views without navigating to any given location.
One great feature for quickly navigating through a variety of options and actions is the
command palette. Inspired by similar features in Sublime and VS Code, the command-palette is a front end into an application-wide, context-sensitive action system that all actions, plugins, and hotkeys in the system are routed through.
To trigger it, simply use the
[CMD/CTRL] p hotkey. Note that the command-palette is context-sensitive and therefore some actions (for example,
Display as - Binary) may only be available depending on your current view or selection. This is also available to plugins. For example, a plugin may use PluginCommand.register with the optional
is_valid callback to determine when the action should be available.
Any action in the action system can have a custom hotkey mapped to it. To access the keybindings menu, use the
[CMD/CTRL-SHIFT] b hotkey, via the
Edit / Keybindings... (
Binary Ninja / Preferences / Keybindings... on macOS) menu, or the
Keybindings command palette entry. Any overlapping keybindings will be highlighted. Click the
Keybinding column header to sort by keybindings in order to see what bindings are overlapping.
The settings themselves are saved directly in the
keybindings.json file in your user folder.
To search in the keybindings list, just click to make sure it's focused and start typing!
On macOS, within the
Ctrl refers to the Command key, while
Meta refers to the Option key. This is a remapping performed by Qt to make cross-platform keybindings easier to define.
h: Switch to hex view
p: Create a function
[ESC]: Navigate backward
[CMD] [(macOS) : Navigate backward
[CMD] ](macOS) : Navigate forward
[CTRL] [(Windows/Linux) : Navigate backward
[CTRL] ](Windows/Linux) : Navigate forward
[SPACE]: Toggle between linear view and graph view
[TAB]: Toggle between Pseudo C and disassembly view
g: Go To Address dialog
n: Name a symbol
u: Undefine an existing symbol (only for removing new user-defined names)
e: Edit an instruction (by modifying the original binary -- currently only enabled for x86, and x64)
x: Focus the cross-reference pane
;: Add a comment
i: Cycle between disassembly, LLIL, MLIL and HLIL
t: Switch to type view
y: Change type of currently selected element
a: Change the data type to an ASCII string
[SHIFT] a: Change the data type to a wchar_t string
[CTRL-SHIFT] a: Change the data type to a wchar32_t string
8: Change type directly to a data variable of the indicated widths
f: Switch data variable between floating point types of various precisions
d: Switch between data variables of various widths
r: Change the data type to single ASCII character
o: Create a pointer data type
[CMD-SHIFT] +(macOS) : Graph view zoom in
[CMD-SHIFT] -(macOS) : Graph view zoom out
[CTRL-SHIFT] +(Windows/Linux) : Graph view zoom in
[CTRL-SHIFT] -(Windows/Linux) : Graph view zoom out
- Other hotkeys specifically for working with types are in the type guide
Binary Ninja offers a graph view that groups the basic blocks of disassembly into visually distinct blocks with edges showing control flow between them.
Features of the graph view include:
- Ability to double click edges to quickly jump between locations
- Zoom (CTRL-mouse wheel)
- Zoom to Fit - Zooms out until the whole graph is visible (
- Zoom to Cursor - Zooms to 100% at the position of the cursor (
- Vertical Scrolling (Side scroll bar as well as mouse wheel)
- Horizontal Scrolling (Bottom scroll bar as well as SHIFT-mouse wheel)
- Individual highlighting of arguments, addresses, immediate values, types, etc.
- Full type signature of current function shown in an interactive header:
- Selecting elements in the header highlights them in the graph view
- Change type (
y) and Rename (
n) shortcuts work on elements in the header
- Reanalyze function button on left edge of the header
- Edge colors indicate whether the path is the true (green) or false (red) case of a conditional jump (a color-blind option in the preferences is useful for those with red-green color blindness) and blue for unconditional branches
- Context menu that can trigger some function-wide actions as well as some specific to the highlighted instruction (such as inverting branch logic or replacing a specific function with a NOP)
Each of the views (Hex, Graph, Linear) have a variety of options configurable from the ☰ menu on the top right of the view pane.
Current options include:
- Background highlight
- Byte value
- Color highlight
- ASCII and printable
- Background highlight
- Graph & Linear Views
- Expand long opcode
- Show address
- Show call parameter names (MLIL only)
- Show function address
- Show opcode bytes
- Show register set highlighting
- Show variable types
- At assignment (MLIL only)
- At top of function
- Low Level IL
- Show Stack Pointer Value
- Medium Level IL
- High Level IL
- Pseudo C
- Advanced IL Forms
- Lifted IL
- Show IL Flag Usage
- Low Level IL (SSA Form)
- Medium Level IL (Mapped)
- Medium Level IL (Mapped, SSA Form)
- Medium Level IL (SSA Form)
- High Level IL (SSA Form)
- Lifted IL
The hexadecimal view is useful for viewing raw binary files that may or may not even be executable binaries and allows direct editing of the binary contents in place, regardless of the type of the binary. Any changes made in hex view will be reflected in all other open views of the same binary. The lock button on the right edge of the bottom status bar must be toggled off (🔓) to perform any direct editing in hex view -- this is to prevent unintended modification of the binary by accidental pasting or typing.
The hex view is particularly good for transforming data in various ways via the
Paste from menus. Note that like any other edits,
Transform menu options will transform the data in-place, but unlike other means of editing the binary, the transformation dialog will work even when the lock button is toggled on (🔒).
Any changes made in the Hex view will take effect immediately in any other views open into the same file (new views can be created via the
Split to new tab, or
Split to new window options under
View, or via splitting panes). This can, however, cause large amounts of re-analysis so be warned before making large edits or transformations in a large binary file.
Cross References Pane¶
The Cross References view in the lower-left section of the sidebar shows all cross-references to the currently selected address, address range, variable or type. This pane will change depending on whether an entire line is selected (all cross-references to that address/type/variable are shown), or whether a specific token within the line is selected. For instance if you click on the symbol
call memmove it will display all known cross-references to
memmove, whereas if you click on the line the
call instruction is on, you will only get cross-references to the address of the call instruction. Cross-references can be either incoming or outgoing, and they can be either data, code, type, or variable.
Code references are references to or from code, but not necessarily to code. Code References can reference, code, data, or structure types. Code References are inter-procedural, and unfortunately due to speed considerations we currently only show disassembly (rather than an IL) when displaying these types of references. In a future version we hope to address this limitation.
Data References are references created by data (i.e. pointers), not necessarily to data. Outgoing Data References are what is pointed to by the currently selected data. Incoming Data References are the set of data pointers which point to this address.
Variable References are all the set of uses of a given variable. As these references are intra-procedural we're able to show the currently viewed IL in the preview.
Type References are references to types and type members made by other types, perhaps more accurately called Type-to-Type-References.
The cross-references pane comes in two different layouts: tree-based (default and shown above) and table-based (this can be toggled through the context menu or the command palette). The tree-based layout provides the most condensed view, allowing users to quickly see (for instance) how many references are present to the current selection overall and by function. It also allows collapsing to quickly hide uninteresting results.
The table-based layout provides field-based sorting and multi-select. Clicking the
Filter text expands the filter pane, showing options for filtering the current results.
analysis.types.templateSimplifier setting can be helpful when working with C++ symbols.
The first of the two drop down boxes allows the selection of incoming, outgoing, or both incoming and outgoing (default). The second allows selection of code, data, type, or variable or any combination thereof. The text box allows regular expression matching of results. When a filter is selected the
Filter display changes from
Filter (<total-count>) to
By default Binary Ninja's cross-reference pane is dynamic, allowing quick navigation to relevant references. Sometimes you might rather have the current references stick around so they can be used as a sort of work-list. This workflow is supported in four different ways. First is the
Pin checkbox (which is only visible if the
Filter drop-down is open). This prevents the list of cross-references from being updated even after the current selection is changed.
Alternatively clicking the
Pin Cross References to New Pane button at the top right of the cross references pane in the sidebar, selecting
Pin Cross References in the context menu or command palette, or using the
SHIFT+X shortcut pops up a
Pinned Cross References pane. This pane has a static address range which can only be updated through the
Pin Cross References action. The third way would be to select (or multi-select in table view) a set of cross-references then right-click
Tag Selected Rows. The tag pane can then be used to navigate those references. Tags allow for persistent lists to be saved to an analysis database whereas the other options only last for the current session.
x- Focus the cross-references pane
[SHIFT] xCreate a new pinned cross-references pane
[OPTION/ALT] x- Navigate to the next cross-reference
[OPTION/ALT-SHIFT] x- Navigate to the previous cross-reference
The following are only available when the cross-references pane is in focus:
[CMD/CTRL] f- Open the filter dialog
[ESC]- Clear the search dialog
[CMD/CTRL] a- Select all cross-references
[ARROW UP/DOWN]- Select (but don't navigate) next/previous cross-reference
[ENTER]- Navigate to the selected reference
Linear view is a hybrid view between a graph-based disassembly window and the raw hex view. It lists the entire binary's memory in a linear fashion and is especially useful when trying to find sections of a binary that were not properly identified as code or even just examining data.
Linear view is most commonly used for identifying and adding type information for unknown data. To this end, as you scroll, you'll see data and code interspersed. Much like the graph view, you can turn on and off addresses via the command palette
Show Address or the ☰ menu on the top right of the linear view pane. Many other options are also available.
The symbols list in Binary Ninja shows the list of symbols for functions and/or data variables currently identified. As large binaries are analyzed, the list may grow during analysis. The symbols list starts with known functions and data variables such as the entry point, exports, or using other features of the binary file format and explores from there to identify other functions and data variables.
The symbols list highlights symbols according to whether they are functions or data variables, local or exported, or imported. All of these kinds of symbols can be toggled from the ☰ menu at the top right of the Symbols pane.
Searching in the symbol list doesn't require focusing the search box. That the filter list here (and in the string panel) is a "fuzzy" search. Each space-separated keyword is used as a substring match and order matters. So: "M C N" for example would match "MyClassName".
Experimental new Symbols List¶
The new symbols list, which is currently being publicly tested, can be enabled via the "ui.components.enabled" setting in Binary Ninja preferences.
The new Symbols List is a powerful symbol organization and navigation tool. It allows sorting symbols by a variety of attributes, organizing them into folders (both manually, and automatically via API interaction), and much more.
The Symbol List allows displaying valuable info about symbols via columns. These columns can be re-arranged, hidden, and used for sorting
Sort by a given column simply by clicking it. Click it again to toggle between Ascending and Descending Sort.
Rearrange columns by dragging them into the order you'd prefer
Hide, show, and reset the order by right clicking the header
You can easily toggle the display of folders via clicking the menu icon, navigating to the "Folders" submenu, and clicking "Show Folder Structure".
"Always Show All Contained [Folders/Data Variables]"¶
These two menu options, on by default, ensure that regardless of what filter options are set, all items within a folder will always be shown.
Truncate Folder Name In Children¶
When working with namespaces, it's often convenient to sort symbols into folders representing these namespaces, via scripts or otherwise.
Enabling this will elide the name of the parent if it's repeated in children.
Creating New Folders¶
New Folder with Selection¶
"New Folder with Selection" will create a new folder containing the selected items. When this is done within a folder, the folder will be created within the shared parent.
"New Folder" and "New Subfolder"¶
"New Folder" will always create a new folder at the root of the tree.
"New Subfolder" will create a new folder within the currently selected folder.
Both of these can be accessed either via the right-click context menu or the menu icon on the top right.
Dragging several items onto another non-folder item will create a folder containing the dragged items and the item they were dropped on.
Moving Items into Folders¶
Dragging several items onto or into a folder will move the items into that folder.
"Remove from Folder"¶
The "Remove from Folder" context menu option will move a given item or items to the root of the tree.
You can toggle the display mode of mangled items via clicking the menu icon and selecting an option from the "Mangled Names" submenu.
The "Memory Map" sidebar widget shows segments and sections currently present in the binary, allows some modification of automatically added sections, and allows adding, modifying, and deleting user segments and sections.
When a segment is selected (highlighted in blue) related sections will be outlined (white border).
Likewise, when a section is selected, related segments will be outlined.
The sorting order of segments and sections can be changed by clicking on any column header.
Edit Function Properties Dialog¶
The “Edit Function Properties” dialog provides the ability to easily configure some of a function’s more advanced properties. It can be opened via the context menu when a function is focused in the graph or linear views, or via the command palette. An overview of the UI is as follows:
- Function prototype. The function’s prototype. If the prototype is too long to fit inside the window, a scroll bar will appear.
- Function info. A list of conditionally-shown tags offering information about the function. Possible tags are as follows:
- Function architecture/platform: The function's architecture/platform (e.g.
- Analysis skipped (too large): Analysis was skipped for this function because it was too large (
- Analysis timed out: Analysis for this function was skipped because it exceeded the maximum allowed time (
- Analysis was skipped (too many updates): Analysis was skipped for this function because it caused too many updates (
- Analysis suppressed: Analysis was suppressed for this function because analysis of auto-discovered functions was disabled (
- Basic analysis only: This function only received basis analysis (
- Intermediate analysis only: This function only received intermediate analysis (
- Unresolved stack usage: The function has unresolved stack usage
- GP = 0xABCD1234: The global pointer value is 0xABCD1234
- Function architecture/platform: The function's architecture/platform (e.g.
- Calling convention. The calling convention this function uses. All calling conventions for the function’s architecture are available as choices.
- Stack adjustment. How many extra bytes does this function remove from the stack upon return?
- Has variable arguments. Does this function accept a variable number of arguments?
- Inline during analysis. Causes the function to be inlined during analysis.
- Clobbered registers. The list of registers that this function clobbers; individual registers can be checked or unchecked.
- Return registers. The list of registers that this function returns data in; individual registers can be checked or unchecked.
- Register stack adjustments. A table containing a row for each register stack (e.g. x87) in the architecture, with the ability to adjust how many registers are removed from each stack when the function returns.
High Level IL¶
Binary Ninja features a decompiler that produces High Level IL (HLIL) as output. HLIL is not intended to be a representation of the code in C, but some users prefer to have a more C-like scoping style.
You can control the way HLIL appears in the settings.
The different options are shown below:
Binary Ninja offers an option to render the HLIL as a decompilation to "pseudo C". This decompilation is intended to be more familiar to the user than the HLIL. It is not necessarily intended to be "compliant" C or even recompilable. In some cases, it may be possible to edit it into a form that a C compiler will accept, but the amount of effort required will vary widely, and no guarantee is made that it will be possible in all cases.
Dead Store Elimination¶
Binary Ninja tries to be conservative with eliminating unused variables on the stack. When the analysis finds a variable that cannot be eliminated but does not appear to be used, the assignment will appear grayed out in the decompiler output. The first two lines of the function below show this:
In this case, these variables are actually unused and can be eliminated. You can tell Binary Ninja to do this by right clicking on the variable and choosing "Allow" from the "Dead Store Elimination" submenu.
Performing this action on both variables in the example results in the following output:
Script (Python) Console¶
The integrated script console is useful for small scripts that aren't worth writing as full plugins.
To trigger the console, either use
<BACKTICK>, or use the
Python Console menu.
<BACKTICK> will work in most contexts to open the console and focus its command line, unless the UI focus is in an editor widget.
When both the Script Console and the Log view are open, the title of both acts as a tab that can be dragged to either a tabbed view showing only one at a time (the default) or a split view showing both. Currently, the console and log views are part of a "Global Area", meaning they are always visible in the same position when switching between open binary tabs in the same window. This means they can only dock with each other, and not with the sidebar or the main pane view area. It is possible to open additional scripting consoles via the
Create Python Console action in the command palette, and these new consoles will appear as additional tabs in the topmost, leftmost tab in the global area. Note that
<BACKTICK> will always focus the original main scripting console, and while any of the other created consoles can be closed (using the button that will appear when hovering over the right edge of its tab), the original one cannot be closed.
Multi-line input is possible just by doing what you'd normally do in python. If you leave a trailing
: at the end of a line, the box will automatically turn into a multi-line edit box, complete with a command-history. To submit that multi-line input, use
<CTRL>-<ENTER>. You can also force multi-line input with
The scripting console is not a full IDE, but it has several convenience features that make it more pleasant to use:
<TAB>offers completion of variables, methods, anything in-scope
<CTRL>-Rallows for reverse-searching your console history
<DOWN>can be used to view the command-history
The interactive python prompt also has several built-in functions and variables:
current_address: address of the current selection. It's settable too and will navigate the UI if changed
current_selection: a tuple of the start and end addresses of the current selection. It's settable and will change the current selection
current_file_offset: the file offset that corresponds the current address. It's settable and will navigate to the corresponding file offset
current_view/ : the current BinaryView
current_function: the current Function
current_basic_block: the current BasicBlock
current_llil: the current LowLevelILFunction
current_mlil: the current MediumLevelILFunction
current_hlil: the current HighLevelILFunction
write_at_cursor(data): function that writes data to the start of the current selection
get_selected_data(): function that returns the data in the current selection
current_il_index: the current index of the IL instruction. It can be LLIL/MLIL/HLIL depending which one is shown in the UI
current_il_instruction: the current IL instruction. It can be LLIL/MLIL/HLIL depending which one is shown in the UI
current_il_function: the current IL function. It can be LLIL/MLIL/HLIL depending which one is shown in the UI
current_il_basic_block: the current IL basic block. It can be LLIL/MLIL/HLIL depending which one is shown in the UI
current_token: the current selected InstructionTextToken. None if no token is selected
current_data_var: the current selected DataVariable. None if no data variable is selected
current_sections: the list of Sections that the current address is in. This the list can be empty
current_segment: the Segment that the current address is in.
current_comment: the comment at the current address. Writing to it sets comment at the current address
current_symbol: the Symbol at the current address. None if there is no symbol
current_symbols: the list of Symbols at the current address
current_var: the current selected Variable in a function. Not to be confused with
current_ui_context: the current UIContext
current_ui_view_frame: the current ViewFrame
current_ui_view: the current View
current_ui_action_handler: the current UIActionHandler
current_ui_view_location: the current ViewLocation
current_ui_action_context: the current UIActionContext
The python interpreter can be customized to run scripts on startup using
startup.py in your user folder. Simply enter commands into that file, and they will be executed every time Binary Ninja starts. By default, it comes with an import helper:
# Commands in this file will be run in the interactive python console on startup from binaryninja import *
From here, you can add any custom functions or objects you want to be available in the console. If you want to restore the original copy of
startup.py at any time, simply delete the file and restart Binary Ninja. A fresh copy of the above will be generated.
The "Run Script..." option in the File Menu allows loading a python script from your filesystem and executing it within the console. It can also be run via the Command Palette or bound to a key.
The script will have access to the same variables the Python console does, including the built-in special functions and variables defined by BinaryNinja, and any variables you have already defined within the console. It may be helpful to think of it as an equivalent to pasting the contents of the script within the console.
__name__ in the console is set to
'__console__', within a script it will be set to
__file__ is not
defined within the console, but within the script, it will be set to the absolute path of the script.
Any variables or functions defined globally within the script will be available within the console, and to future scripts.
See the plugin development guide.
The current script console only supports Python at the moment, but it's fully extensible for other programming languages for advanced users who wish to implement their own bindings.
Plugins can be installed by one of two methods. First, they can be manually installed by adding the plugin (either a
.py file or a folder implementing a python module with a
__init__.py file) to the appropriate path:
~/Library/Application Support/Binary Ninja/plugins/
Alternatively, plugins can be installed with the new pluginmanager API.
For more detailed information on plugins, see the plugin guide.
Binary Ninja supports loading PDB files through a built in PDB loader. It will automatically search for a corresponding PDB file whenever you load a Windows executable or library that was compiled with a PDB. The PDB loader will search a variety of places for PDBs, in the following order, if the files exist and match the guid in the analyzed file:
- Look in symbol servers defined in the
_NT_SYMBOL_PATHenvironment variable, as defined by Microsoft's documentation.
- Look for the file at the path specified in the loaded binary. E.g. when
C:\Users\foo\foo.exewas compiled, it stored
C:\Users\foo\foo.pdbas metadata inside
C:\Users\foo\foo.pdbwill be loaded if it exists (and matches the guid).
- Look in the same directory as the opened file/bndb (e.g. If you have opened
C:\foo.bndb, the PDB plugin looks for
- Look in the local symbol store. This is the directory specified by
pdb.files.localStoreAbsolutein the settings, if it exists. Otherwise, this is a folder relative to the Binary Ninja user directory, specified by the
pdb.files.localStoreRelativesetting (and possibly the
BN_USER_DIRECTORYenvironment variable). This directory has the structure
<symbol store>\foo.pdb\<guid>\foo.pdb, equivalent to a regular symbol server.
- Attempt to connect and download the PDB from the list of symbol servers specified in setting
pdb.files.symbolServerList, in order.
If you know the location of the PDB in advance, or it would not be found by any of the above, you can manually point the loader at the file via Open with Options and specifying the path under External Debug Info File (setting name
analysis.debugInfo.external). If this is done, the previous steps to look up the PDB will not be taken.
The PDB loader comes with a couple configuration options which enable and disable various features and may improve your analysis results. They can be toggled for all files via settings, or for an individual file via Open with Options.
- Allow Unnamed Untyped Symbols (default off): Some PDBs contain variables with no name and only a
voidtype. These are most likely static local variables with no type information. This is off by default because there isn't much actionable information you can do with these, and they often cause confusion and duplicate symbols.
- Allow Untyped Symbols (default on): In stripped PDBs, the Global Module (see: Load Global Module Symbols) can contain symbols whose name does not demangle to any type. Usually these are globals used in C code that doesn't mangle types into names. Having this on will allow creating these symbols without type information.
- Create Missing Named Types (default on): In stripped PDBs, while no type information is available, mangled names still contain references to the stripped types in function parameters and global variables. This setting will create empty types for all of those names, so that the type references will resolve properly even if the referenced types are not found.
- Expand RTTI Structures (default on): This creates structures for RTTI symbols found within a PDB, like RTTI Class Type Information, RTTI Complete Object Locator, RTTI Class Hierarchy Descriptor, etc. No analysis information is currently derived from these structures, but they will have their fields annotated in Linear View.
- Generate Virtual Table Structures (default on): This generates structures for virtual tables found on classes in the PDB's types. Due to limitations of Binary Ninja's C++ type handling, these virtual table structures are just structures of function pointers, and may have incorrect behavior for types with multiple or virtual inheritance.
- Load Global Module Symbols (default on): The global module in a PDB contains a list of all the functions with no type information beyond a C++ mangled name. Generally, this information is less accurate than a full symbol type, but stripped PDBs from Microsoft's official PDB server (and ones created via the
/PDBSTRIPPEDlink.exe flag) will only have information in this module. In the event that a symbol has both a defined type and a global module mangled name, the defined type will be used.
- Cache Downloaded PDBs in Local Store (default on): When a PDB is downloaded from a PDB server, or loaded from a file, a copy of it will be saved in the local symbol store (as defined by #4 above). This is useful when working with large PDBs that you want to save, but will use extra disk space.
Binary Ninja now comes with a debugger plugin that can debug executables on Windows, Linux, and macOS.
For more detailed information on plugins, see the debugger guide.
Binary Ninja automatically updates itself by default. This functionality can be disabled in the
Update Channel dialog (
Update Channel, or under the
Preferences sub menu available under
Edit on Linux and Windows, and the Application menu on macOS) preferences by turning off the
Update to latest version automatically option. Regardless of whether automatic updates are enabled, it is always possible to check for updates by selecting
Check for Updates... from either the command palette or under
Help menu on Linux and Windows, and the Application menu on macOS.
Updates are silently downloaded in the background and when complete an option to restart is displayed in the status bar. When an update is available but has not been applied, a blue up arrow will appear in the status bar. Clicking this arrow will apply the update once it ensures it has the lastest update, downloading it if necessary. Once the update is complete, a green arrow will appear in its place with the message "Restart to Apply Update". Even if the arrow is not clicked, once the arrow is green, Binary Ninja will replace itself with the new version as it launches whenever it is restarted.
On windows, this is achieved through a separate launcher that loads first and replaces the installation before launching the new version which you'll notice as a separate window. On macOS and Linux, the original installation is overwritten after the update occurs as these operating systems allow files to be replaced while running. The update on restart is thus immediate.
If you have any trouble with the self-updater, you can always request a fresh set of download links as long as you are under active support.
Binary Ninja stable builds releases happen on semi-regular intervals throughout the year. However, we also make development builds available to customers with active support. Simply use the update dialog, and select one of the "Development" channels in the
Update Channel field.
To contact Vector 35 for support, we recommend the following methods: